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Pink City of India
Jaipur from Amber Fort
Map of Rajasthan showing location of Jaipur
Map of India showing location of Rajasthan
Location of Jaipur
in Rajasthan and India
Country  India
State Rajasthan
District(s) Jaipur District
• Density
2,324,319 (2001)
11,598 /km2 (30,039 /sq mi)
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
• Elevation
200.4 km (77 sq mi)
431 m (1,414 ft)

Coordinates: 2655′34″N 7549′25″E / 26.9260N 75.8235E / 26.9260; 75.8235 Jaipur Jaipur.ogg pronunciation (Hindi: जयपुर), also popularly known as the Pink City, is the capital of Rajasthan state, India.Jaipur is the former capital of the princely state of Jaipur. Founded in 1727 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II, the ruler of Amber, the city today has a population of more than 5 million residents.

His Highness Sawai Bhawani Singh Bahadur (born 1931) is the current titular Maharaja of Jaipur.

The city is remarkable among pre-modern Indian cities for the width and regularity of its streets which are laid out into six sectors separated by broad streets 111 ft (34 m) wide. The urban quarters are further divided by networks of gridded streets. Five quarters wrap around the east, south, and west sides of a central palace quarter, with a sixth quarter immediately to the east. The Palace quarter encloses a sprawling palace complex (the Hawa Mahal, or palace of winds), formal gardens, and a small lake. Nahargarh Fort crowns the hill in the northwest corner of the old city. Another noteworthy building is Sawai Jai Singh's observatory, Jantar Mantar.


[edit] History

For the history of all the region, see Dhundhar
Hawa Mahal, and the Principal Street of Jaipur, c. 1875
Jaipur, Principal Street, c. 1875

Jaipur was founded in 1727 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II, a Kachwaha Rajput, who ruled from 1699-1744. Initially his capital was Amber (city), which lies at a distance of 11 km from Jaipur. He felt the need of shifting his capital city with the increase in population and growing scarcity of water. Jaipur is the first planned city of India. The King consulted several books on architecture and architects before making the lay out of Jaipur.

After several battles with Marathas, Jai Singh was keen on the security aspect of the city. Being a lover of mathematics and science, Jai Singh sought advice from Vidyadhar Bhattacharya, a Brahmin scholar of Bengal, to aid him design the city architecture.

The construction of the city started in 1727. It took around 4 years to complete the major palaces, roads and square. The city was built following the principles of Shilpa Shastra, the Indian Architecture. The city was divided into nine blocks, of which two consist the state buildings and palaces, with the remaining seven allotted to the public. Huge fortification walls were made along with seven strong gates.

For the time, architecture of the town was very advanced and certainly the best in Indian subcontinent. In 1853, when the Prince of Wales visited Jaipur, the whole city was painted pink to welcome him. Today, avenues remain painted in pink, provide a distinctive appearance to the city.

In the 19th century the city grew rapidly ; by 1900 it had a population of 160,000. The city's wide boulevards were paved and lit with gas.

The city had several hospitals. Its chief industries were in metals and marble, fostered by a school of art founded in 1868. The city also had three colleges, including a Sanskrit college (1865) and a girls' school (1867) initiated under the reign of the enigmatic Maharaja Sawai Ram Singh II. There was also a wealthy and enterprising community of native bankers, particularly the Jains and the Marwaris.


[edit] Architecture

Jaipur is considered by many urbanists to be one of the best planned cities. In an era when most of the rajputs were busy fighting with each other, Jaipur's kings diplomatically broadened their control sphere maintaining good relations with the Mughals.

The city was planned according to Indian Vastu Shastra (Vedic or Pouranic Planning for the comfort and prosperity of the citizens). The directions of each street and market are east to West and North to South. The Eastern gate is called Suraj (Sun) Pol, while the Western gate is called Chand (Moon) Pol. There are only three gates facing East, west, and North including the Northern gate (known as Zorawar Singh gate) which faces toward the ancestral capital of Amber, while many gates face South.

Although the present city has expanded from outside of its walls, the original planning was within the walls. The gates used to be closed at sunset and opened at sunrise. Almost all Northern Indian towns of that period presented a chaotic picture of narrow twisting lanes, a confusion of run-down forts, temples, palaces, and temporary shacks that bore no resemblance at all to the principles set out in Hindu architectural manuals which call for strict geometric planning. Thus, for Sawai Jai Singh II and the Bengali Guru Vidyadhar (who was a 'Shaspati' - Hindu Priest Architect), the founding of Jaipur was also a ritual and a bronze opportunity to plan a whole town according to the principles of Hindu architectural theory.

The town of Jaipur is built in the form of a eight-part Mandala known as the 'Pithapada'. Nine signifies the nine planets of the ancient astrological zodiac. It is also known that Sawai Jai Singh II was a great astronomer and a town planner, and hence the 'Pithapada'. Also, the commercial shops are designed in multiples of nine (27), having one cross street for a planet.

[edit] Geography and Climate

Jaipur is located at 2655′N 7549′E / 26.92N 75.82E / 26.92; 75.82.[1] It has an average elevation of 432 metres (1417 ft).

The district is situated in the eastern part of Rajasthan. It is bound in the north by Sikar and Alwar, in South by Tonk, Ajmer and Sawai Madhopur. Nagaur, Sikar and Ajmer in the west and in east by Bharatpur and Dausa districts.

The major rivers passing through the Jaipur district are Banas and Banganga. Ground water resources to the extent of about 28.65 million cubic meter are available in the district. Although serious drought is rare, poor water management and exploitation of groundwater with extensive tube-well systems threatens agriculture in some areas.

Jaipur has a semi-arid climate. Although it receives over 650 mm (25 in) of rainfall annually the rainfall is concentrated in the monsoon months between June and September. Temperatures remain relatively high throughout the year, with the summer months of April to early July having average daily temperatures of around 30oC. During the monsoon months there are frequent, heavy rains and thunderstorms, but flooding is not common. The winter months of November to February are mild and pleasant, with average temperatures in the 15-18oC range and little or no humidity. There are however occasional cold waves that lead to temperatures near freezing.


[edit] Maharaja Of Jaipur

His Highness Brig. Sawai Bhawani Singh MVC, of Jaipur

His Highness Sawai  Bahadur (born 1931) is the current titular Maharaja of Jaipur and head of the Kachwaha clan of Rajputs. The Maharaja is considered a political, cultural, and religious icon in modern Rajasthan, as well as a military official. He is styled His Highness, The Maharaja of Jaipur.He adopted his grandson, Kumar Padmanabh Singh, and made him the heir to the throne of Jaipur.

In the same vein as his father, the first hotelier prince in India, Sawai continues to run many palaces as hotels, including the Rambagh Palace, Raj Mahal palace, or other former royal residences. Sawai still conducts certain ceremonies and customs from the traditional seat of royal power, the sprawling The City Palace. He is also involved in local politics, like his stepmother, Gayatri Devi of Cooch Behar.

Cadet branch of the Rajputs
Born: 1931 Died: Living
Titles in pretence
Preceded by
Sawai Man Singh II of Jaipur
Maharaja of Jaipur
24 June 1970 - present
Reason for succession failure:
Abolished by Dominion of India
Succeeded by

[edit] Politics

Jaipur has been a stronghold of the opposition Bharatiya Janta Party (BJP). The Indian National Congress has won only two of 14 parliament elections. Currently, Late Girdhari Lal Bhargava of BJP is M.P. from Jaipur, who won first time in 1989 and has been elected six times since then.

Jaipur Districts has 19 constituencies for electing MLA (Member of Legislative Assembly) of Rajasthan namely Shahpura, Chaksu, Bassi, Bagru, Sanganer, Malviya Nagar, Adarsh Nagar, Kishanpole, Civil Lines, Vidhyadhar Nagar, Hawa Mahal, Jamva Ramgarh, Amber or Amer, Banipark, Dudu, Phulera, Chomu, Virat Nagar and Kotputli. Banipark is the largest constituency of all. Bhairon Singh Shekhawat has also has been elected MLA for Jaipur three times.

Pankaj Joshi is Mayor of Jaipur Municipal Corporation (JMC). Totally, there are 70 seats for Vidhan Parishad in Jaipur District.

[edit] Infrastructure

In a recent international survey Jaipur was ranked the 7th best place to visit in Asia and in another poll it was ranked third among twelve major Indian cities.

Modern infrastructural facilities are developing fast, and in many cases surpass those of larger cities like Delhi and Calcutta[citation needed]. The city is expanding very quickly and has become a hot spot for development in Rajasthan. Jaipur International Airport is located at a satellite location of Sanganer and offer's flights to Delhi, Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Kolkata and Guwahati along with sporadic services to International locations such as Dubai.

Since 2000 Jaipur has become a centre for education. The city is very peaceful and many north Indian families prefer to send their offspring to Jaipur for higher and technical education. Jaipur has more than 40 engineering colleges, 40 business management institutes, 15 pharmacy institutes, 4 hotel management institutes, 3 medical colleges and 6 dental colleges. It also has 8 universities including Rajasthan University. Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur is one of the best technical institutes in India.

Jaipur has a well maintained road network with multi-story flyovers and traffic lights with closed circuit cameras. Police control room (PCR) vans are being equipped with GPS to monitor locations and help maintain law and order.

Jaipur boasts of International Living standards with well planned colonies of grid like patterns (sectors and blocks) and parks well maintained by JDA. Mansarovar housing colony is the largest housing colony in Asia. Two new colonies Anupam vihar and Abhinav vihar have been recently added to Jaipur by JDA. There are so many shopping malls and Multiplex which offer a urban lifestyle to Jaipurites.

SMS Cricket stadium is also located here, which is a popular venue for many international matches and for Indian Premier League matches. Events like Jaipur Jewelry Show and Jaipur Literature Festival are offering a common platform for people not only from India but from other countries also, giving Jaipur a cosmopolitan image.

SMS Hospital, SDMH (Durlabhji Hospital) are among the most famed hospitals of Jaipur. Apart from these, there are more than 40 small and mid sized hospitals in the city. Old city of Jaipur is highly congested, whereas suburbs of Jaipur provide wide and free flowing roads. Tech Park had already became operational, built by Mahindra Group and is expected to complete by 2010.

[edit] Transport

[edit] Road

Jaipur Ajmer Road

Jantar Mantar attracts thousands of tourists every year.


Amber Fort.
The Ganesh Pol of Amber fort.Amber is now part of Jaipur Municipal Corporation

The city of Jaipur is the capital of the state of Rajasthan and is centrally located. National Highway No.8 links Delhi to Mumbai, and No.11 links Bikaner to Agra, passing through Jaipur district with a total length of 366 km. The total length of different types of roads in the district was approximately 4,102 km at March 2000.

[edit] Rail

Jaipur is well connected by rail to all of the major cities and towns of India. Jaipur is on the broad-gauge and meter gauge network of the Indian Railways and has direct trains on the broad gauge network to cities like Agra, Delhi, Gwalior, Mumbai, Howrah, Hyderabad, Chennai, Mysore, Bangalore, Lucknow, Kanpur, Patna etc. across the country and to major cities in Rajasthan such as Ajmer, Sawai Madhopur, Kota, Jodhpur, Bikaner and Udaipur.

Jaipur is connected with metre gauge rail route with Sri Ganganagar, Churu, Sikar.

Jaipur is also connected with major centres of neighbouring states such as Agra (Uttar Pradesh), Ahmedabad (Gujarat) and Delhi through the broad gauge network. The Palace on Wheels makes a scheduled stop in Jaipur.

[edit] Air

Jaipur's Jaipur International Airport (IATA: JAIICAO: VIJP) is situated in its satellite town of Sanganer and offers sporadic service to Muscat, Sharjah, Bangkok and Dubai. Jaipur also has well connected domestic air links with Jodhpur, Udaipur, Aurangabad, Delhi, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Goa, Chennai, Ahmedabad, Indore, Bangalore, Mumbai, Surat and Raipur, Lucknow, Gorakhpur.]

[edit] Economy

Tourism is important to the city's economy

No. of large and medium scale running units: 48 No. of small scale units: 19,544 No. of industrial areas: 19 (Bagru, Bassi, Bais Godam, Bindyaka, Dudu, Hirawala, Jetpura, Jhotwara, Kaladera, Kanakpura, Kartarpura, Malviya Nagar, Phulera, Renwal, Sanganer, Shahpura, Sitapura, Sudarshanpur and Vishwakarma)

Jaipur district is a centre for both modern and traditional industries. The main industrial products include: acetylene gas, ACSR (Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced) cable, all-purpose flour (maida), atta flour, ball bearings, bottling of LPG, ceramics, pottery, cold roll strips, corrugated boxes, deoiled cakes, durries, dyeing and printing, edible oil, electronic items, engraving on brass items, ferrous and non-ferrous castings, gems and jewelry, general engineering and manufacturing, granite slabs and tiles, hand-made paper, handicraft items, halogen automobile headlamps, "hawai" chappals (sandals), household electrical appliances, HT steel strips, iodized salt, lamps, laminated springs for railways, marble statues, marble tiles & slabs, moulded plastic components for electronics, nitrochlorobenzene, oxygen gas, perfumes, pigments, plastic containers, P.P. multifilament yarn, PVC cables, PVC doors, PVC footwear, canvas shoes, Portland cement, ready made garments (clothing), re-roller products, semolina (suji), steel furniture, steel ingots, stone grits, synthetic leather, suits & shirts made of synthetic materials, tablets and capsules, two way radio and line, washing soap, wheat, woollen carpets, refined vegetable oil and vanaspati ghee heavy Steel fabrication, brass and lacquer work, enamel work, gems and jewellery, granite tiles, handlooms, marble statues, printed cloth and textiles, ready made garments, woollen and silk carpets.

Jaipur has been ranked 31 among the 50 Emerging Global Outsourcing cities.[citation needed] Genpact and Infosys have their BPO already established and running successfully. In fact Genpact has the fastest growing location in Jaipur. Real Estate business is flourishing well from last 2–3 years. Some of the companies already present here include MICO, Coca Cola, IBM, Ericsson and NEI populary known as NBC Bearings.

Jaipur also has Reserve bank of India and many other prominent international banks. India's largest integrated IT SEZ Mahindra World City is located in Jaipur. Master planned by Jurong Constructions Singapore it covers nearly 3,000 acres (12 km2) of land off Ajmer highway and has already attracted major companies like Infosys, TCS, Wipro, Tech Mahindra, Truworth and Deutsche Bank.India's one of a kind World Trade Park is also under construction in Malaviya Nagar. It will be having luxury hotel, business halls, five screen multiplex, underwater restaurant and many showrooms of international brands. In coming years it will be the hub for modern business development in Jaipur[citation needed]. Jaipur is soon planned to have an International Convention Centre and a Golf course. A film city near Agra highway is also in the pipeline[citation needed]

Tourism is a significant part of Jaipur's economy. Some of the world's best hotels are located here.

[edit] Tourism

Places of tourist interest:
Forts & Palaces
Hawa Mahal
Amber Fort
Jaigarh Fort
Nahargarh Fort
City Palace
Chandra Mahal
Jal Mahal

Birla Temple or Lakshmi Narayan Mandir
Govind Devji Temple
Moti Doongri Temple
Akshardham Temple
Jain Temple

Ram Niwas Garden
Central Museum (or Albert Hall Museum)

Zoological Garden
Sisodia Rani Palace and Garden
Vidyadhar Garden
Central Park (Entrance near Statue Circle)
Kanak Vrindavan

Shopping Malls
Crystal Palm
MGF Mall
Apex Mall
National Handloom
India Bulls Megastore

Chokhi Dhani
Chand Baori stepwell

[edit] Demographics

As of 2001 India census,[3] Jaipur had a population of 2,324,319. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. In Jaipur, 15% of the population is under 6 years of age.

[edit] Culture

Albert hall



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